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Sun Exposure

Please click here to read about sun exposure and link to skin cancer as well as sun safety tips! 

Non-Pharmacologic Options Sunscreen Options | Sunburn Treatment Options 

The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in as little as 15 minutes. Follow these recommendations to help protect yourself and your family.


Non-Pharmacologic Options: 


You can reduce your risk of skin damage and skin cancer by seeking shade under an umbrella, tree, or other shelter before you need relief from the sun. Your best bet to protect your skin is to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing when you’re outside—even when you’re in the shade.


When possible, long-sleeved shirts and long pants and skirts can provide protection from UV rays. Clothes made from tightly woven fabric offer the best protection. A wet T-shirt offers much less UV protection than a dry one, and darker colors may offer more protection than lighter colors. Some clothing certified under international standards comes with information on its ultraviolet protection factor.

If wearing this type of clothing isn’t practical, at least try to wear a T-shirt or a beach cover-up. Keep in mind that a typical T-shirt has an SPF rating lower than 15, so use other types of protection as well.


For the most protection, wear a hat with a brim all the way around that shades your face, ears, and the back of your neck. A tightly woven fabric, such as canvas, works best to protect your skin from UV rays. Avoid straw hats with holes that let sunlight through. A darker hat may offer more UV protection.

If you wear a baseball cap, you should also protect your ears and the back of your neck by wearing clothing that covers those areas, using a broad spectrum sunscreen with at least SPF 15, or by staying in the shade.


Sunglasses protect your eyes from UV rays and reduce the risk of cataracts. They also protect the tender skin around your eyes from sun exposure.

Sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays offer the best protection. Most sunglasses sold in the United States, regardless of cost, meet this standard. Wrap-around sunglasses work best because they block UV rays from sneaking in from the side.

Pharmacologic Options

NOTE: For pediatrics please refer to pediatric sun exposure section


Put on broad spectrum sunscreen with at least SPF 15 before you go outside (at least 10 minutes before sun exposure), even on slightly cloudy or cool days. Don’t forget to put a thick layer on all parts of exposed skin. Get help for hard-to-reach places like your back. And remember, sunscreen works best when combined with other options to prevent UV damage.

How sunscreen works. Most sunscreen products work by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering sunlight. They contain chemicals that interact with the skin to protect it from UV rays. All products do not have the same ingredients; if your skin reacts badly to one product, try another one or call a doctor.

SPF. Sunscreens are assigned a sun protection factor (SPF) number that rates their effectiveness in blocking UV rays. Higher numbers indicate more protection. You should use a broad spectrum sunscreen with at least SPF 15.

ReapplicationSunscreen wears off. Put it on again if you stay out in the sun for more than two hours and after swimming, sweating, or toweling off.

Expiration date. Check the sunscreen’s expiration date. Sunscreen without an expiration date has a shelf life of no more than three years, but its shelf life is shorter if it has been exposed to high temperatures.

Cosmetics. Some makeup and lip balms contain some of the same chemicals used in sunscreens. If they do not have at least SPF 15, don't use them by themselves.

non otc


Sunburn is not immediately apparent. Symptoms usually start about 4 hours after sun exposure, worsen in 24–36 hours, and resolve in 3–5 days. They include red, tender and swollen skin, blistering, headache, fever, nausea, and fatigue. In addition to the skin, eyes can become sunburned. Sunburned eyes become red, dry, painful, and feel gritty. Chronic eye exposure can cause permanent damage, including blindness.

Take acetaminophen, or ibuprofen to relieve pain, headache, and fever.

Drink plenty of water to help replace fluid losses.

Comfort burns with cool baths or the gentle application of cool wet cloths.

Avoid further exposure until the burn has resolved.

Use of a topical moisturizing cream, aloe, or 1% hydrocortisone cream may provide additional relief.


If blistering occurs:

Lightly bandage or cover the area with gauze to prevent infection.

Do not break blisters. (This slows healing and increases risk of infection.)

When the blisters break and the skin peels, dried skin fragments may be removed and an antiseptic ointment or hydrocortisone cream may be applied.


Seek medical attention if any of the following occur:

Severe sunburns covering more than 15% of the body


High fever (>101 °F)

Extreme pain that persists for longer than 48 hours

OTC Options to help heal sunburn

1) Aloe gel

2) Aloe lotion

3) Drink water

4) Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

5) Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)

6) Hydrocortisone cream 1% (Cortizone)

7) Epsom Salt (Sitz Bath) 

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